Since August 2008 Associate Professor in General Linguistics at the University of Tromsø;
August 2004 - July 2008 Associate Professor in English Linguistics at the University of Tromsø;
February 2001 - July 2004 lecturer in Phonetics/Phonology at the University of Ulster at Jordanstown;
2000/2001 part time lecturer in Phonetics/Linguistics at the Schule für Logopädie (school for speech and language therapists), Malteser Krankenhaus Sankt Anna, Duisburg;
January 1998 - February 2001 research assistant, SFB 282 research project C10 'Lexical Phonology and Constraint-Based Phonology', Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf;
September 1997 to December 1997 research assistant, SFB 282 research project B9 'Verbstrukturen' ('verb structures'), Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf;
1994 to 1997 student teaching and research assistant at the Seminar für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
June 2003 Postgraduate Certificate in University Teaching, University of Ulster;
December 2001 PhD in Linguistics, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf;
thesis 'Vowel Harmony and Correspondence Theory';
June 1997 MA in Linguistics, Education and Mass Media Sciences, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf;
thesis 'Valenzalternation im Yukatekischen';
June 1989 Abitur (A-levels) Albert-Einstein-Gymnasium Duisburg
My publications since 2003 are also registered in .
Krämer, Martin (upcoming). Underlying Representations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Krämer, Martin (2010). Review of John J. McCarthy (2007). Hidden Generalizations. Phonological Opacity in Optimality Theory. London: Equinox. Language 86: 969-972.
Krämer, Martin (2010). Review of Mark Hale & Charles Reiss (2008). The Phonological Enterprise. Oxford University Press. Lingua 120:176-182.
Krämer, Martin (2009). The Phonology of Italian. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Krämer, Martin (2009). 'Cryptovariation in Italian velar palatalisation.' In Pascual J. Masullo, Erin O'Rourke, and Chia-Hui Huang (eds.) Romance Linguistics: Structures, Interfaces, and Microparametric Variation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 193-208
Krämer, Martin (2009). 'Main stress in Italian nonce nouns.' In D. Torck, and W. L. Wetzels (eds.). Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory 2006. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 127-141.
Krämer, Martin (2008). 'English schwa insertion before liquids and phonological opacity.' Proceedings of CLS 41.1:267-282.
Blaho, Sylvia, Patrik Bye and Martin Krämer (2007). 'Freedom of Analysis?' In Sylvia Blaho, Patrik Bye and Martin Krämer (eds.). Freedom of Analysis? Studies in Generative Grammar 95. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 1-10.
Blaho, Sylvia, Patrik Bye and Martin Krämer (eds.) (2007). Freedom of Analysis? Studies in Generative Grammar 95. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter. (Google books version)
Krämer, Martin (2006). 'The Emergence of the Comparatively Unmarked.' In Proceedings of the 25th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, ed. Donald Baumer, David Montero, and Michael Scanlon, 236-244. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. (abstract) (paper) (table of contents)
Titterington, Jill, Alison Henry, Martin Krämer, Joe G. Toner & Mike Stevenson (2006). 'An investigation of weak syllable processing in deaf children.' In Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 20. 249-269.
Krämer, Martin (2006). 'Optimal underlying representations.' In Leah Bateman and Cherlon Ussery (eds.), Proceedings of the Thirty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the North East Linguistic Society. Amherst, MA: GLSA Publications. 351-365.
Krämer, Martin (2005). 'Contiguity and non-derived environment blocking of s-voicing in Lombardian and Tuscan Italian.' Probus 17.2. 227-251.
Krämer, Martin (2004). 'Review of Wolfgang Kehrein (2002). "Phonological Representation and Phonetic Phasing. Affricates and Laryngeals." Tübingen: Niemeyer.' Linguistische Berichte 199. 361-369.
Krämer, Martin (2003). 'Vowel Harmony and Correspondence Theory.' Studies in Generative Grammar 66. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Krämer, Martin (2003). 'Intervocalic s-voicing, geminates and the Richness of the Base in Veneto Italian.' Rivista di Grammatica Generativa 28. 71-85.
Krämer, Martin (ed.) (2003). Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 16. Papers from the Jordanstown Communication and Linguistics Days. University of Ulster.
Krämer, Martin (2002). 'Local constraint conjunction and neutral vowels in Finnish harmony.' In Karen Brunger (ed.) Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics Vol. 15. University of Ulster. pp. 38-64.
Krämer, Martin (2002). Review of Richard Wiese (2000) 'The Phonology of German.' Oxford: Oxford University Press. Journal of Linguistics 38-3, pp. 703-708.
Krämer, Martin (2001). 'Yucatec Maya Vowel Alternations – Harmony as Syntagmatic Identity.' Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 20:2, pp. 175-217.
Krämer, Martin (2001). 'On Obstruent Voicing in Breton, German, and Italian.' In Arthur Holmer, Jan-Olof Svantesson & Åke Viberg (eds.). Proceedings of the 18th Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics. Travaux de l'Institut de Linguistique de Lund. Lund: Lund University Press. pp. 39-55.
Krämer, Martin (2000). 'Voicing alternations and underlying representations: the case of Breton.' Lingua 110:9, pp. 639-663.
Grijzenhout, Janet & Martin Krämer (2000). 'Final devoicing and voicing assimilation in Dutch derivation and cliticization.' In Barbara Stiebels & Dieter Wunderlich (eds.). Lexicon in Focus. studia grammatica 45. Berlin: Akademie Verlag. pp. 55-82.
Krämer, Martin (1999). 'On the role of prosodic and morphological categories in vowel harmony and disharmony. A correspondence approach.' In Tina Cambier-Langeveld, Anikó Lipták, Michael Redford & Erik Jan van der Torre (eds.) Proceedings of ConSOLE-7. Leiden: SOLE, pp. 183-199.
Krämer, Martin & Dieter Wunderlich (1999). 'Transitivity Alternations in Yucatec, and the Correlation between Aspect and Argument Roles.' Linguistics 37:3 1999, pp. 431-479.
Krämer, Martin (1998). 'A Correspondence Approach to Vowel Harmony and Disharmony.' SFB 282 Working Paper Nr. 107. Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf.
Work in Progress
My research focuses on generative phonology. The topics I am interested in are broadly the following: Variation, microvariation, cryptovariation, underlying representations, crazy rules; Optimality Theory (OT) and things OT can't do but should as well as the things OT can do but shouldn't and the way in which OT does the things it does. To gain an insight into these matters I investigate the sound patterns of English and Italian, but other languages as well.
Krämer, Martin (2003). 'What is wrong with the right side? Edge (a)symmetries in phonology and morphology.' Ms. University of Ulster. (ROA 576-0203)
'Optimizing Lexicon Optimization.' Talk given at OCP8, Marrakech, Morocco, 19-22 January 2011.
'The Semantics of Phonological Features.' Talk given at the 18th Manchester Phonology Meeting, Manchester, 20-22 May 2010.
'The stuff of features.' Talk given at the Toronto Tromsø Phonology Workshop, University of Toronto, 9-11 October 2009.
'Hypercorrection and underlying representation.' Talk given at the GLOW 32 Workshop 'The Lexicon - if any', Nantes, 15 April 2009.
'Br[eə]king news: Microvariation in Northern Irish derived contrasts.' Talk given at the University of Ulster at Jordanstown, Northern Ireland, 26 January 2009.
'English vowel tensing: The distribution of long and short vowels in Belfast.' Poster presented at OCP6, University of Edinburgh, 22-24 January 2009.
Olga Tihonova & Martin Krämer 'Canadian raising and flapping in OT-CC.' Talk presented at OCP6, University of Edinburgh, 22-24 January 2009.
'When Romans lose their heads.' Talk presented at the CUNY Conference on the foot, CUNY Graduate Center, New York City, 15-17 January 2009. [Click here for the slides. You can listen to the talk here, but it's an awfully big file and I had a cold.]
'Long-term phonological variation and change in Optimality Theory: From Latin to Modern Italian.' Talk presented at the Nordic Language Variation Network Research Training Seminar organised by Gjert Kristoffersen, 12-16 June 2008, Flåm, Norway.
'Taking a free ride can cau[r]se severe hyperrhoticity.' Talk presented at the 16th Manchester Phonology Meeting, 22 - 24 May 2008, Manchester.
'Variation in counterfeeding opacity: Northern Irish derived contrasts reloaded.' Talk presented at ICLCE 2, 02 - 04 July 2007, Toulouse.
'Return of the Living Dead: Attack of the Ghost Foot.' Talk presented at the 15th Manchester Phonology Meeting, 23 - 25 May 2007, Manchester.
'Crypto-variation and the phonology-lexicon interface in Italian velar palatalisation.' Talk presented at LSRL 37, 15 - 18 March 2007, University of Pittsburgh.
'Hidden variation.' Talk presented at the Sound Circle, 8 March 2007, Universiteit van Amsterdam.
'Italian Nonsense Word Stress.' Talk presented at Going Romance 20, 7 - 8 December 2006, The Free University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam.
'What kind of species are Italian glides?' Talk presented at the workshop "Phonological Bases of Phonological Features", 28 - 29 September 2006, CASTL, Tromsø.
'Italian velar palatalisation: Into the phonology or into the lexicon?' Talk presented at the 14th Manchester Phonology Meeting, 25 - 27 May 2006, Manchester.
'The emergence of the comparatively unmarked.' Talk presented at WCCFL 25, 28 - 30 April 2006, Seattle, WA.
'German glottal stop and other aliens in the light of comparative markedness.' Talk given at the XVI Coloquio de Gramática Generativa, 20 - 22 April 2006, Madrid.
Dafna Graf and Martin Krämer 'Syncope, opacity and maximal word size in Modern Hebrew.' Poster presented at OCP3, 17 - 19 January 2006, Budapest. [Hand-out; poster]
'Variation of laryngeal contrast in French and Italian fricatives.' Talk at the conference 'Phonological Variation: The Case of French', 25 - 27 August 2005, Tromsø.
'How crazy is English r insertion?' Talk presented at the Workshop on 'Crazy Rules and Lexical exceptions' at ICLaVE 3, 24 June 2005, Amsterdam.
Dafna Graf and Martin Krämer 'Resisting Syncope.' Talk at the 13th Manchester Phonology Meeting, 26 - 28 May 2005, Manchester, U.K.
'Curing a cold with antibiotics? English preliquid schwa insertion and phonological opacity.' Talk at CLS41 (annual meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society), 07 - 09 April 2005, Chicago.
'Much ado about nothing? English r and phonological opacity.' Talk given at OCP2 (The Old World Conference in Phonology), University of Tromsø, 20 - 22 January 2005.
'Optimal Underlying Representations.' Poster presentation at NELS35, University of Connecticut, Storrs, 22 - 24 October 2004. Abstract / Poster.
'Lexical economy, optimization and the indeterminacy of underlying representations.' Talk presented at the ULCL workshop 'The Lexicon in Optimality Theory', 11 June 2004, Leiden.
Victoria Kingsley O'Hagan & Martin Krämer 'The realisation of Irish initial consonant mutations by L2 learners and the universal markedness hierarchy of place features.' Talk presented at the LAGB Meeting at the University of Surrey Roehampton, 30 August - 2 September 2004, and the 12th Manchester Phonology Meeting, 20-22 May 2004, Manchester, U.K.
'Affricates and the phonetic implementation of laryngeal contrast in Italian.' Talk given at the Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Sprachwissenschaft, 25-27 February 2004, Mainz.
'Lexical economy and Optimality.' Talk given at the Jordanstown Communication and Linguistics Days, 26 & 27 June 2003, University of Ulster at Jordanstown.
'A hidden geminate and phonological opacity in Veneto Italian.' Talk given at the 11th Manchester Phonology Meeting, 22-24 May 2003, Manchester, U.K.
'The last consonant.' Talk presented at the LAGB Spring Meeting, 14-16 April 2003, Sheffield, U.K.
'The mysterious fate of the coronal fricative in Veneto Italian – Opacity and Lexicon Optimization in conflict?' Talk presented at the XXIX Incontro di Grammatica Generativa, 12-14 February 2003, Urbino, Italy.
'The root-affix metaconstraint and its reversal in vowel harmony.' Talk given at the 10th Manchester Phonology Meeting, 23-25 May 2002, Manchester, U.K.
'Dialectal variation of Italian s-voicing as constraint interaction.' Talk given at the 25th GLOW Colloquium, 9-11 April 2002, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
'Vowel transparency as balance.' Talk given at the 19th SCL, 10-12 January 2002, Universitetet i Tromsø, Norway.
'The naughty behaviour of affix vowels in Fula vowel harmony.' Talk given at the SFB conference 'The Lexicon in Linguistic Theory', 22-24 August 2001, Düsseldorf,
and at the 'Jordanstown Linguistics Days', 26-27 April 2001, University of Ulster at Jordanstown, Northern Ireland.
'Transparency as balance - another look at a notorious problem in the description of vowel harmony.' Talk given at the 24th GLOW Colloquium, 8-10 March 2001, Universidade do Minho, Portugal.
'On stem control and apparent directionality of vowel harmony.' Talk given at the SFB Kolloquium on phonology, 30 June 2000, BUGH Wuppertal.
'Local Conjunction and Alignment: Alternatives to Output-Output Correspondence.' Talk given at the 18th SCL (Scandinavian Conference on Linguistics), 18-20 May 2000, Lund University,
and at the LAGB spring meeting 06-08 April 2000, University College London.
'Onsetvoicing as a reflex of the Prosodic Word.' Talk given at the DGfS Jahrestagung 'Das Wort - Strukturen und Konzepte', 01-03 March 2000, Philipps-Universität, Marburg.
'Obstruentvoicing in derived environments.' Talk given at the HIL Seminar, 03 November 1999, Leiden University, and at the ZAS workshop on 'Laryngeals', 17 July 1999, ZAS Berlin.
'Positional faithfulness, positional markedness and underlying laryngeal features: the case of Breton voicing alternations.' Talk given at the 7th Manchester Phonology Meeting, 13-15 May 1999, University of Manchester, U.K.
'Hat das Yukatekische wirklich einen gespaltenen Ergativ? Vortrag im Workshop 'Neue Perspektiven aus der Linguistik des Yukateko' auf dem 'II. Mesoamerikanistischen Symposium', 09.-11. April 1999, Universität Bremen.
'A Correspondence Approach to Vowel Harmony and Disharmony. On the Role of Consonants and grammatical Categories.' Talk given at ConSOLE 7 (Conference of the Students' Organization of Linguistics in Europe), 09-12 December 1998, University of Bergen, Norway.
Janet Grijzenhout & Martin Krämer 'Final Devoicing and Voicing Assimilation in Dutch: The Interaction of Alignment and Featural Identity.' Talk given at the International Conference of the SFB 282 'Lexicon in Focus', 17-19 August 1998, Wuppertal, Germany.
'A Correspondence Approach to Vowel Harmony and Disharmony.' Poster presented at the International Conference 'Lexicon in Focus', 17-19 August 1998, Wuppertal, Germany.
'Faithfulness and Identity in Dutch Voicing Assimilation and Final Devoicing.' Talk given at the SFB-Kolloquium 'Phonological Features and Domains', 05 June 1998, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf.
'Vowel Harmony and Disharmony under Correspondence.' Poster presented at the 6th Manchester Phonology Meeting, 21-23 May 1998 University of Manchester, U.K.
'Argument-Linking im Yukatekischen - Ein Typologenalptraum.' Vortrag beim Mitarbeitertreffen der SFBs 282, 340, 471, 18. November 1997, Solingen.
HIF-1000 Innføring i fonetikk og språkvitenskap
HIF-3022 Phonology I (with Ove Lorentz)
LIN-3000 Fonetikk og språkvitenskap for logopeder
LIN-1012 Phonology (introductory undergraduate level)HIF 3021 Phonology 2 (masters level; with Ove Lorentz)
In 2010 I did not teach any courses since I was on research leave.
December 2009: 'Underlying representations in phonology.' Erasmus Lectures given at Eötvös Loránd University/the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest.
December 2009: 'Italian foot structure and word stress.' Erasmus lecture given at Università degli Studi di Verona.
Autumn 2009HIF 3022 Phonology 1 (masters level; with Ove Lorentz)
LIN-1014 Historical Linguistics (introductory undergraduate level)HIF 3021 Phonology 2 (masters level; with Ove Lorentz)
ENG-1016 Innføring i engelske språklyder og lydmønstre / Introduction to the sounds and sound patterns of English (introductory undergraduate level)HIF 3022 Phonology 1 (masters level; with Ove Lorentz)
ENG2020 English Phonology (Undergrad)
HIF3021 Phonology 2 (Masters, with Ove Lorentz)
ENG-1016 Innføring i engelske språklyder og lydmønstre / Introduction to the sounds and sound patterns of English (introductory undergraduate level; with Islam Youssef)HIF 3022 Phonology 1 (masters level; with Patrik Bye)
HIF 3021 Phonology II (masters level; with Patrik Bye)
ENG-1016 Innføring i engelske språklyder og lydmønstre / Introduction to the sounds and sound patterns of English
HIF 3022 Phonology 1 (masters level; with Patrik Bye)
ENG2020 English Phonology (Undergrad)
ENG2070 Language variation and varieties of Modern English (Undergrad)
HIF3021 Phonology 2 (Masters, with Patrik Bye)
HIF3081 Feltarbeid og språkbeskrivelse / Linguistic Fieldmethods (masters level)
HIF 3022 Phonology 1 (masters level, with a special guest appearance by Christian Uffmann, then Marburg, later CASTL, now Sussex)
LIN 1030 Phonetics (undergraduate level)
HIF 3021 Phonology 2 (masters level, with Patrik Bye, Sylvia Blaho and Curt Rice)
HIF 3081 Feltarbeid og språkbeskrivelse / Linguistic Fieldmethods (masters level, with Peter Muriungi)
You can get more info on any of these courses here.